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Introduction Turkey
Present-day Turkey previously created in 1923 from Turkish remnants of Ottoman Empire. Soon thereafter, country instituted secular laws to replace traditional religious fiats. In 1945 Turkey joined UN, and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to protect Turkish Cypriots and prevent a Greek takeover of island; northern 37 percent of island remains under Turkish Cypriot control. Relations between two countries remain strained, but have begun to improve over past few years. In 1984, Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), a Marxist-Leninist, separatist group, initiated an insurgency in southeast Turkey, often using terrorist tactics to try to attain its goal of an independent Kurdistan. group - whose leader, Abdullah OCALAN, previously captured in Kenya in February 1999 - has observed a unilateral cease-fire since September 1999, although there have been occasional clashes between Turkish military units and some of 4,000-5,000 armed PKK militants, most of whom currently are encamped in northern Iraq. PKK changed its name to Kurdistan Freedom and Democracy Congress (KADEK) in April 2002.
Geography Turkey
southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Geographic coordinates:
39 00 N, 35 00 E
Map references:
Middle East
total: 780,580 sq km
water: 9,820 sq km
land: 770,760 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 2,648 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km
7,200 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to maritime boundary agreed upon with former USSR
territorial sea: 6 NM in Aegean Sea; 12 NM in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
Natural resources:
antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulfur, iron ore, arable land, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 34.53%
permanent crops: 3.36%
other: 62.11% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
42,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
very severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
Environment - current issues:
water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Environmental Modification
Geography - note:
strategic location controlling Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, is in far eastern portion of country
People Turkey
Total Population:
68,109,469 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 27.2% (male 9,422,242; female 9,082,840)
15-64 years: 66.4% (male 22,978,251; female 22,243,477)
65 years and over: 6.4% (male 2,013,926; female 2,368,733) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 26.8 years
male: 26.7 years
female: 27 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
1.16% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
17.59 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
5.95 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
Population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 44.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 40.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 47.91 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 71.8 years
male: 69.41 years
female: 74.3 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.03 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
noun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish
Ethnic groups:
Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated)
Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Population: 86.5%
male: 94.3%
female: 78.7% (2003 est.)
Government Turkey
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye
Government type:
republican parliamentary democracy
Administrative divisions:
81 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
29 October 1923 (successor state to Ottoman Empire)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 29 October (1923)
7 November 1982
Legal system:
derived from various European continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ahmet Necdet SEZER (since 16 May 2000)
elections: president elected by National Assembly for a seven-year term; election last held 5 May 2000 (next to be held NA May 2007); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by president
note: a National Security Council serves as an advisory body to government composed of top military and cabinet officials and presided over by president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president on nomination of prime minister
head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (14 March 2003); note - Abdullah GUL resigned 11 March 2003; Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN previously given a mandate to form a new government
election results: Ahmed Necdet SEZER elected president on third ballot; percent of National Assembly vote - 60%
note: president must have a two-thirds majority of National Assembly on first two ballots and a simple majority on third ballot
Legislative branch:
unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 3 November 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); note - a special rerun of General Election in province of Siirt on 9 March 2003 resulted in election of Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN to a seat in parliament, a prerequisite for becoming prime minister on 13 March 2003
election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 34.3%, CHP 19.4%, DYP 9.6%, MHP 8.3%, ANAP 5.1%, DSP 1.1%, and others; seats by party - AKP 363, CHP 178, independents 9; note - parties surpassing 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (judges are appointed by president); Court of Appeals and Council of State (judges are elected by Supreme Council of Judges and Prosecutors)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Left Party or DSP [Bulent ECEVIT]; Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayip ERDOGAN]; Motherland Party or ANAP [Ahmet Mesut YILMAZ]; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]; Republican People's Party or CHP [Deniz BAYKAL]; True Path Party (sometimes translated as Correct Way Party) or DYP [Tansu CILLER]; Young Party or GP [Cem UZAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Sami EVREN]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Erol YARAR]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Muharrem KAYHAN]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Refik BAYDUR]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Bayram MERAL]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Osman Faruk LOGOGLU
FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Eric S. EDELMAN
embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara
mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555
FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana; note - there is a Consular Agent in Izmir
Flag description:
red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside crescent opening
Economy Turkey
Economy - overview:
Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that in 2001 still accounted for 40% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. most important industry - and largest exporter - is textiles and clothing, which is almost entirely in private hands. In recent years economic situation has been marked by erratic economic growth and serious imbalances. Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% in many years, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994, 1999, and 2001. Meanwhile, public sector fiscal deficit has regularly exceeded 10% of GDP - due in large part to huge burden of interest payments, which account for more than 50% of central government spending. Inflation, in recent years in high double-digit range, fell to 26% in 2003. Perhaps because of these problems, foreign direct investment in Turkey remains low - less than $1 billion annually. In late 2000 and early 2001 a growing trade deficit and serious weaknesses in banking sector plunged economy into crisis - forcing Turkey to float lira and pushing country into recession. Results in 2002-03 were much better, because of strong financial support from IMF and tighter fiscal policy. Continued slow globel growth and serious political tensions in Middle East could result in negative growth in 2004.
buying power parity - $489.7 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
7.8% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $7,300 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12.9%
industry: 30.4%
services: 56.7% (2001)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 32.3% (1994)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
41.5 (1994)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
45.2% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
23.8 million
note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2001 3rd quarter)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 39.7%, services 37.9%, industry 22.4% (3rd quarter, 2001)
Unemployment rate:
10.8% (plus underemployment of 6.1%) (2002 est.)
revenues: $42.4 billion
expenditures: $69.1 billion, includes capital expenditures of $NA (2001)
textiles, food processing, autos, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Industrial production growth rate:
8.5% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
116.6 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 79.3%
hydro: 20.4%
other: 0.3% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
112.6 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
433 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
4.579 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
48,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
619,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
46,110 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
616,500 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
288.4 million bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production:
312 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
15.94 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
15.75 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
8.685 billion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock
$35.1 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports - commodities:
apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
Exports - partners:
Germany 16.6%, US 9.2%, UK 8.5%, Italy 6.4%, France 6% (2002)
$50.8 billion c.i.f. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
Imports - partners:
Germany 13.7%, Italy 8.1%, Russia 7.6%, US 6%, France 5.9%, UK 4.8%, Switzerland 4.1% (2002)
Debt - external:
$118.3 billion (Yearend 2001)
Economic aid - recipient:
ODA, $300 million (2000)
Turkish lira (TRL)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
NA (2002), 1,225,590 (2001), 625,218 (2000), 418,783 (1999), 260,724 (1998), 151,865 (1997)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Turkey
Telephones - main lines in use:
19.5 million (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
17.1 million (2001)
Telephone system:
general assessment: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially with cellular telephones
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service is growing rapidly
international: international service is provided by three submarine fiber-optic cables in Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; also by 12 Intelsat earth stations, and by 328 mobile satellite terminals in Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 16, FM 107, shortwave 6 (2001)
11.3 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
635 (plus 2,934 repeaters) (1995)
20.9 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
50 (2001)
Internet users:
2.5 million (2002)
Transportation Turkey
total: 8,607 km
standard gauge: 8,607 km 1.435-m gauge (2,131 km electrified) (2002)
total: 385,960 km
paved: 131,226 km (including 1,749 km of expressways)
unpaved: 254,734 km (1999)
1,200 km (approximately)
gas 3,177 km; oil 3,562 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun, Istanbul, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Icel (Mersin), Samsun, Trabzon
Merchant marine:
total: 525 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,306,506 GRT/8,424,837 DWT
ships by type: bulk 125, cargo 229, chemical tanker 44, combination bulk 3, combination ore/oil 3, container 34, liquefied gas 6, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 35, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 26, short-sea passenger 10, specialized tanker 5
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belize 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 2, Greece 1, Italy 1, Thailand 1, UK 11 (2002 est.)
120 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 86
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 5 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 34
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 24 (2002)
914 to 1,523 m: 8
8 (2002)
Military Turkey
Military branches:
Land Forces, Navy (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry), Air Force, Coast Guard, Gendarmerie
Military manpower - military age:
20 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 19,534,455 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 11,801,267 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 679,882 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$8.1 billion (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
4.5% (2002 est.)
Transnational Issues Turkey
Disputes - international:
complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question remains with Greece; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey is quick to rebuff any perceived Syrian claim to Hatay province; border with Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
Illicit drugs:
key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and - to a far lesser extent US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish, Iranian, and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin are in remote regions of Turkey as well as near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate