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Introduction Tajikistan
Tajikistan has experienced three changes in government and a five-year civil war since it gained independence in 1991 from USSR. A peace agreement among rival factions previously signed in 1997, and implemented in 2000. central government's less than total control over some areas of country has forced it to compromise and forge alliances among factions. Attention by international community in wake of war in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development assistance, which could create jobs and increase stability in long term. Tajikistan is in early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATO's Partnership for Peace.
Geography Tajikistan
Central Asia, west of China
Geographic coordinates:
39 00 N, 71 00 E
Map references:
total: 143,100 sq km
water: 400 sq km
land: 142,700 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries:
total: 3,651 km
border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
Natural resources:
hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Land use:
arable land: 5.41%
permanent crops: 0.92%
other: 93.67% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
7,200 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
earthquakes and floods
Environment - current issues:
inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; mountainous region dominated by Trans-Alay Range in north and Pamirs in southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), previously tallest mountain in former USSR
People Tajikistan
Total Population:
6,863,752 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 39.8% (male 1,376,244; female 1,353,108)
15-64 years: 55.5% (male 1,896,509; female 1,915,334)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 140,993; female 181,564) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 19.3 years
male: 19 years
female: 19.6 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
2.13% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
32.78 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
8.46 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
-3.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
Population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 113.43 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 99.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 126.58 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 64.37 years
male: 61.39 years
female: 67.5 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.17 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
less than 200 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2001 est.)
noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
Ethnic groups:
Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5% (declining because of emigration), other 6.6%
Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi'a Muslim 5%
Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Population: 99.4%
male: 99.6%
female: 99.1% (2003 est.)
Government Tajikistan
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
Government type:
Administrative divisions:
2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat) and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* (Khorugh), Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Sughd (Khujand)
note: administrative center name follows in parentheses
9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
6 November 1994
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emomali RAHMONOV (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president, approved by Supreme Assembly
election results: Emomali RAHMONOV elected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMONOV 97%, Davlat USMON 2%
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 6 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by president; Tajikistan held a constitutional referendum on 22 June 2003 that, among other things, set a term limit of two seven-year terms for president
Legislative branch:
bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (33 seats; members are indirectly elected, 25 selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by president; all serve five-year terms)
election results: Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65%, Communist Party 20%, Islamic Rebirth Party 7.5%, other 7.5%; seats by party - NA; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA
elections: last held 27 February and 12 March 2000 for Assembly of Representatives (next to be held NA 2005) and 23 March 2000 for National Assembly (next to be held NA 2005)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges are appointed by president)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party or DPT [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV, chairman]; Islamic Revival Party [Said Abdullo NURI, chairman]; People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMONOV]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Sherali KENJAYEV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
there are two unregistered political parties with 1,000 or more members: Progressive Party [Suton QUVVATOV]; Unity Party [Hikmatuko SAIDOV]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Khamrokhon ZARIPOV
chancery: 1725 K Sreet NW, Suite 409, Washington, DC 20006
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard E. HOAGLAND
embassy: 10 Pavlova Street, Dushanbe, Tajikistan 734003; note - embassy in Dushanbe is not yet fully operational; most business is still handled in Almaty at 531 Sayfullin Street, Almaty, Kazakhstan, telephone 7-3272-58-79-61, FAX 7-3272-58-79-68
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [992] (372) 21-03-48 (Dushanbe)
FAX: [992] (372) 21-03-62
Flag description:
three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in center of white stripe
Economy Tajikistan
Economy - overview:
Tajikistan has lowest per capita GDP among 15 former Soviet republics. Only 8% to 10% of land area is arable. Cotton is most important crop. Mineral resources, varied but limited in amount, include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and limited obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. civil war (1992-97) severely damaged already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Even though 60% of its people continue to live in abject poverty, Tajikistan has experienced steady economic growth since 1997. Continued privatization of medium and large state-owned enterprises will further increase productivity. Tajikistan's economic situation, however, remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, weak governance, widespread unemployment, and external debt burden. A debt restructuring agreement previously reached with Russia in December 2002, includes an interest rate of 4%, a 3-year grace period, and a US $49.8 million credit to Central Bank of Tajikistan.
buying power parity - $8.476 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
9.1% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $1,300 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 19%
industry: 26%
services: 55% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line:
60% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 25.2% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
34.7 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
3.187 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 67.2%, industry 7.5%, services 25.3% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
40% (2002 est.)
revenues: $502 million
expenditures: $520 million, includes capital expenditures of $86 million (2002 est.)
aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers
Industrial production growth rate:
10.3% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
14.18 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 1.9%
hydro: 98.1%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
14.52 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
3.909 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
5.242 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
250 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
20,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Natural gas - production:
50 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
1.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
1.25 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
$710 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partners:
Netherlands 29.4%, Turkey 16.1%, Russia 11.9%, Uzbekistan 9.9%, Switzerland 9.3%, Hungary 5.4%, Latvia 4.2% (2002)
$830 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Russia 22.7%, Uzbekistan 18.4%, Ukraine 11.2%, Kazakhstan 10%, Turkmenistan 6.5%, Azerbaijan 5.7%, India 4.4% (2002)
Debt - external:
$1 billion (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$60.7 million from US (2001)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Tajikistani somoni per US dollar - 2.7 (2002), 2.37 (2001), 2.08 (2000), 1.24 (1999), 0.78 (1998)
note: new unit of exchange previously introduced on 30 October 2000, with one somoni equal to 1,000 of old Tajikistani rubles
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Tajikistan
Telephones - main lines in use:
363,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
2,500 (1997)
Telephone system:
general assessment: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not reached by national network
domestic: cable and microwave radio relay
international: linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 8, FM 10, shortwave 2 (2002)
1.291 million (1991)
Television broadcast stations:
13 (2001)
820,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
4 (2002)
Internet users:
5,000 (2002)
Transportation Tajikistan
total: 482 km
broad gauge: 482 km 1.520-m gauge (2002)
total: 27,767 km
paved: NA
unpaved: NA (2000)
gas 540 km; oil 38 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
66 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 53
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 36 (2002)
Military Tajikistan
Military branches:
Army, Air Force and Air Defense Force, Presidential National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops)
Military manpower - military age:
18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,704,457 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,397,188 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 82,490 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$35.4 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
3.9% (FY01)
Transnational Issues Tajikistan
Disputes - international:
prolonged regional drought creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; boundary agreements signed in 2002 cede 1,000 sq km of Pamir Mountain range to China in return for China relinquishing claims to 28,000 sq km of Tajikistani lands; negotiations with China resolved longstanding boundary dispute; talks have begun with Uzbekistan to demine and delimit border; disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
Illicit drugs:
major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80 percent of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third world-wide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium)