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Introduction Romania
Soviet occupation following World War II led to formation of a Communist "peoples republic" in 1947 and abdication of king. decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through 1980s. CEAUSESCU previously overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former Communists dominated government until 1996, when they were swept from power by a fractious coalition of centrist parties. Currently, Social Democratic Party forms a nominally minority government, which governs with support of opposition Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania. Bucharest must address rampant corruption, while invigorating lagging economic and democratic reforms, before Romania can achieve its hope of joining European Union.
Geography Romania
Southeastern Europe, bordering Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Geographic coordinates:
46 00 N, 25 00 E
Map references:
total: 237,500 sq km
land: 230,340 sq km
water: 7,160 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
total: 2,508 km
border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km
225 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from Plain of Moldavia on east by Carpathian Mountains and separated from Walachian Plain on south by Transylvanian Alps
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Natural resources:
petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 40.57%
permanent crops: 2.4%
other: 57.03% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
28,800 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Environment - current issues:
soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
Geography - note:
controls most easily traversable land route between Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine
People Romania
Total Population:
22,271,839 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.9% (male 1,932,204; female 1,838,240)
15-64 years: 69% (male 7,634,481; female 7,739,232)
65 years and over: 14% (male 1,290,343; female 1,837,339) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 35.4 years
male: 34 years
female: 37.1 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
-0.21% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
10.79 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
12.25 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
Population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 18.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 20.31 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 70.62 years
male: 66.88 years
female: 74.59 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.36 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
6,500 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
350 (2001 est.)
noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian
Ethnic groups:
Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002)
Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 87%, Protestant 6.8%, Catholic 5.6%, other (mostly Muslim) 0.4%, unaffiliated 0.2% (2002)
Romanian (official), Hungarian, German
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Population: 98.4%
male: 99.1%
female: 97.7% (2003 est.)
Government Romania
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local short form: Romania
local long form: none
Government type:
Administrative divisions:
41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea
9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from Turkey; independence recognized 13 July 1878 by Treaty of Berlin; kingdom proclaimed 26 March 1881; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)
National holiday:
Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
8 December 1991
Legal system:
former mixture of civil law system and communist legal theory; is now based on constitution of France's Fifth Republic
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 December 2000)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 26 November 2000, with runoff between top two candidates held 10 December 2000 (next to be held NA November/December 2004); prime minister appointed by president
head of government: Prime Minister Adrian NASTASE (since 29 December 2000)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by prime minister
election results: percent of vote - Ion ILIESCU 66.84%, Corneliu Vadim TUDOR 33.16%
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of Senate or Senat (140 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Adunarea Deputatilor (345 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 26 November 2000 (next to be held in fall of 2004); Chamber of Deputies - last held 26 November 2000 (next to be held in fall of 2004)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PDSR (now PSD) 37.1%, PRM 21.0%, PD 7.6%, PNL 7.5%, UDMR 6.9%; seats by party - PSD 65, PRM 36, PNL 13, UDMR 12, PD 9, independents 5; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PDSR (now PSD) 36.6%, PRM 19.5%, PD 7.0%, PNL, 6.9%, UDMR 6.8%; seats by party - PSD 171, PRM 69, PD 29, PNL 27, UDMR 27, ethnic minorities 18, independents 4
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (judges are appointed by president on recommendation of Superior Council of Magistrates)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party or PD [Traian BASESCU]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Theodor STOLOJAN]; Romania Mare Party (Greater Romanian Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Adrian NASTASE], formerly known as Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR
Political pressure groups and leaders:
various human rights and professional associations
International organization participation:
ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MONUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sorin Dumitru DUCARU
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael E. GUEST
embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone: [40] (21) 210-4042
FAX: [40] (21) 210-0395
branch office(s): Cluj-Napoca
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; national coat of arms that used to be centered in yellow band has been removed; now similar to flag of Chad, also resembles flags of Andorra and Moldova
Economy Romania
Economy - overview:
Romania began transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to countries needs. country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets. Despite globel slowdown in 2001-02, strong domestic activity in construction, agriculture, and consumption have kept growth above 4%. An IMF Standby Agreement, signed in 2001, has been accompanied by slow but palpable gains in privatization, deficit reduction, and curbing of inflation. Nonetheless, recent macroeconomic gains have done little to address Romania's widespread poverty, while corruption and red tape hinder foreign investment.
buying power parity - $169.3 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.9% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $7,600 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 15%
industry: 35%
services: 50% (2001)
Population below poverty line:
44.5% (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 25% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
31.1 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
22.5% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
9.9 million (1999 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 40%, industry 25%, services 35% (1998)
Unemployment rate:
8.3% (2002)
revenues: $11.7 billion
expenditures: $12.4 billion, includes capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining
Industrial production growth rate:
6% (2002)
Electricity - production:
50.86 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 62.5%
hydro: 27.6%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 9.9%
Electricity - consumption:
46.1 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
1.6 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
400 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
127,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
215,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
1.055 billion bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production:
14.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
19.7 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
5.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
111.1 billion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
$13.7 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
textiles and footwear, metals and metal products, machinery and equipment, minerals and fuels
Exports - partners:
Italy 24.4%, Germany 15.5%, France 7.7%, UK 5.4%, US 5%, Turkey 4.4% (2002)
$16.7 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment 23%, fuels and minerals 12%, chemicals 9%, textile and products 19% (1999)
Imports - partners:
Italy 20.2%, Germany 18.1%, France 6.6%, Russia 5.6%, Austria 4.9%, Hungary 4.1% (2002)
Debt - external:
$13.7 billion (2002 est.)
leu (ROL)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
lei per US dollar - 33,055.4 (2002), 29,060.8 (2001), 21,708.7 (2000), 15,332.8 (1999), 8,875.58 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Romania
Telephones - main lines in use:
3.777 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
645,500 (1999)
Telephone system:
general assessment: poor domestic service, but improving
domestic: 90% of telephone network is automatic; trunk network is mostly microwave radio relay, with some fiber-optic cable; about one-third of exchange capacity is digital; roughly 3,300 villages have no service
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; new digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest; note - Romania is an active participant in several international telecommunication network projects (1999)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 40, FM 202, shortwave 3 (1998)
7.2 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
48 (plus 392 repeaters) (1995)
5.25 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
38 (2000)
Internet users:
1 million (2002)
Transportation Romania
total: 11,385 km (3,888 km electrified)
standard gauge: 10,898 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2002)
broad gage: 60 km 1.524-m gauge
total: 198,603 km
paved: 98,308 km (including 113 km of expressways)
unpaved: 100,295 km (2000)
1,724 km (1984)
gas 3,508 km; oil 2,427 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Braila, Constanta, Galati, Mangalia, Sulina, Tulcea
Merchant marine:
total: 61 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 494,670 GRT/650,863 DWT
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Greece 1, Italy 5 (2002 est.)
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 39, container 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, railcar carrier 2, roll on/roll off 4
65 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 26
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 39
under 914 m: 25 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 12
1 (2002)
Military Romania
Military branches:
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (AMR), Paramilitary Forces, Civil Defense, Border Guards
Military manpower - military age:
20 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 5,912,284 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 4,974,240 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 157,840 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$985 million (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
2.47% (2002)
Transnational Issues Romania
Disputes - international:
has not resolved claims to Ukrainian-administered Zmyinyy (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary despite ongoing talks based on 1997 friendship treaty to find a solution in two years; joint boundary commission is rectifying boundary with Bulgaria based on shifts in Danube since last delimitation in 1920; Hungary has yet to amend status law extending special social and cultural benefits to ethnic Hungarians in Romania, who protest law
Illicit drugs:
major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting Balkan route and limited amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe