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Introduction Peru
Ancient Peru previously seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of Incas whose empire previously captured by Spanish conquistadores in 1533. Peruvian independence previously declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime. FUJIMORI won reelection to a third term in spring of 2000, but international pressure and corruption scandals led to his ouster by Congress in November of that year. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in spring of 2001, which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO as new head of government.
Geography Peru
Western South America, bordering South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Geographic coordinates:
10 00 S, 76 00 W
Map references:
South America
total: 1,285,220 sq km
water: 5,220 sq km
land: 1.28 million sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries:
total: 5,536 km
border countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 1,496 km (est.), Ecuador 1,420 km
2,414 km
Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 NM
territorial sea: 200 NM
varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Natural resources:
copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Land use:
arable land: 2.85%
permanent crops: 0.38%
other: 96.77% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
11,950 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Environment - current issues:
deforestation (some result of illegal logging); overgrazing of slopes of costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is ultimate source of Amazon River
People Peru
Total Population:
28,409,897 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 33.5% (male 4,828,531; female 4,678,008)
15-64 years: 61.5% (male 8,794,799; female 8,689,072)
65 years and over: 5% (male 652,375; female 767,112) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 23.5 years
male: 23.2 years
female: 23.7 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
1.61% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
22.81 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
5.69 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
Population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 36.97 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 31.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 42.04 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 70.88 years
male: 68.45 years
female: 73.43 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.81 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.4% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
53,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
3,900 (2001 est.)
noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
Ethnic groups:
Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Roman Catholic 90%
Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Population: 90.9%
male: 95.2%
female: 86.8% (2003 est.)
Government Peru
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
Government type:
constitutional republic
Administrative divisions:
24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: some reports indicate that 24 departments and 1 constitutional province are now being referred to as regions; Peru is implementing a decentralization program whereby these 25 administrative divisions will begin to exercise greater governmental authority over their territories; in November 2002, voters chose their new regional presidents and other regional leaders; authority that regional government will exercise has not yet been clearly defined, but it will be devolved to regions over course of several years
28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
31 December 1993
Legal system:
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 July 2001); note - president is both chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided for by constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Canseco (since 28 July 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2001)
head of government: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 July 2001); note - president is both chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided for by constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Canseco (since 28 July 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2001)
note: Prime Minister Carlos FERRERO Costa (since 15 December 2003) does not exercise executive power; this power is in hands of president; note - Beatriz MERINO previously asked to resign on 12 December 2003 and previously replaced by Carlos FERRERO Costa three days later
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; special presidential and congressional elections held 8 April 2001, with runoff election held 3 June 2001; next to be held 9 April 2006
election results: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique 53.1%, Alan GARCIA 46.9%
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
Legislative branch:
unicameral Congress of Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - Peru Posible 26.3%, APRA 19.7%, Unidad Nacional 13.8%, FIM 11.0%, others 29.2%; seats by party - Peru Posible 47, APRA 28, Unidad Nacional 17, FIM 11, others 17
elections: last held 8 April 2001 (next to be held 9 April 2006)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by National Council of Judiciary)
Political parties and leaders:
Peruvian Aprista Party or PAP [Alan GARCIA]; Independent Moralizing Front or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Posible or PP [Luis SOLARI]; Popular Action or AP [Javier DIAZ Orihuela]; Solucion Popular [Carlos BOLANA]; Somos Peru or SP [Alberto ANDRADE]; Union for Peru or UPP [Roger GUERRA Garcia]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, Washington (DC)
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John R. DAWSON
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000
FAX: [51] (1) 434-3037
Flag description:
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with coat of arms centered in white band; coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
Economy Peru
Economy - overview:
Thanks to foreign investment and cooperation between government and IMF and World Bank, growth previously strong in 1994-97 and inflation previously brought under control. In 1998, El Nino's impact on agriculture, financial crisis in Asia, and instability in Brazilian markets undercut growth. following year previously again lean year for Peru, with aftermath of El Nino and Asian financial crisis working its way through economy. Political instability resulting from presidential election and FUJIMORI's subsequent departure from office limited growth in 2000. downturn in globel economy further curtailed growth in 2001. President TOLEDO, who assumed presidency in July 2001, has been working to reinvigorate economy and reduce unemployment. Economic growth in 2002 is estimated at 4.8%, led by construction in retail and gas sectors.
buying power parity - $138.8 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
5.3% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $5,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 10%
industry: 27%
services: 63% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
50% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 35.4% (1996)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
46.2 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.2% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
7.5 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture, mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction, transport, services
Unemployment rate:
9.4%; widespread underemployment (2002 est.)
revenues: $10.4 billion
expenditures: $10.4 billion, includes capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication
Industrial production growth rate:
6.5% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
20.59 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 14.5%
hydro: 84.7%
other: 0.8% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
19.15 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
95,100 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
161,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
614.7 million bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production:
370 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
370 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
245.1 billion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, plantains, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products, wool; fish
$7.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
fish and fish products, gold, copper, zinc, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, coffee, sugar, cotton
Exports - partners:
US 28.1%, China 10.5%, UK 7%, Switzerland 6.1%, Japan 5.6% (2002)
$7.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
Imports - partners:
US 26.1%, Chile 7.9%, Spain 5.1%, Colombia 5%, Brazil 4.7%, Venezuela 4.7%, Argentina 4.3% (2002)
Debt - external:
$29.2 billion (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$895.1 million (1995)
nuevo sol (PEN)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.52 (2002), 3.51 (2001), 3.49 (2000), 3.38 (1999), 2.93 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Peru
Telephones - main lines in use:
1.8 million (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
504,995 (1998)
Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate for most requirements
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Pan American submarine cable
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)
6.65 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)
3.06 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
10 (2000)
Internet users:
3 million (2002)
Transportation Peru
total: 1,829 km
standard gauge: 1,515 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 314 km 0.914-m gauge (2002)
total: 72,900 km
paved: 9,331 km
unpaved: 63,569 km (1999 est.)
8,808 km
note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca
gas 388 km; oil 1,557 km; refined products 13 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas
note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on upper reaches of Amazon and its tributaries
Merchant marine:
total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 29,470 GRT/45,451 DWT
note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: US 1 (2002 est.)
ships by type: cargo 4, petroleum tanker 1
233 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 49
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 184
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 61
under 914 m: 100 (2002)
Military Peru
Military branches:
Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes Naval Air, Marines, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru; FAP), National Police (includes General Police, Security Police, and Technical Police)
Military manpower - military age:
17 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 7,510,882 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 5,045,619 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 281,717 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$1 billion (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.8% (FY01)
Transnational Issues Peru
Disputes - international:
Bolivia continues to press Chile and Peru to restore Atacama corridor ceded to Chile in 1884
Illicit drugs:
until 1996 world's largest coca leaf producer; emerging opium producer; cultivation of coca in Peru increased by 8% to 36,600 hectares between 2001 and end of 2002; much of cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia for processing into cocaine, while finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil and Bolivia for use in Southern Cone or transshipped to Europe and Africa