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Introduction Mongolia
Mongols gained fame in 13th century when under Genghis KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death empire previously divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in 14th century. Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A Communist regime previously installed in 1924. During early 1990s, ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power to Democratic Union Coalition (DUC), which defeated MPRP in a national election in 1996. Over next four years, DUC put forward a number of key reforms to modernize economy and to democratize political system. former Communists were a strong opposition that stalled additional restructuring and made implementation difficult. In 2000, MPRP won an overwhelming victory in legislature - with 72 of 76 seats - and completely reshuffled government. While it continues many of reform policies, MPRP has focused on social welfare and public order priorities.
Geography Mongolia
Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
46 00 N, 105 00 E
Map references:
total: 1.565 million sq km
water: 9,600 sq km
land: 1,555,400 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries:
total: 8,162 km
border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,485 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Natural resources:
oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate
Land use:
arable land: 0.84%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 99.16% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
840 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud", which is harsh winter conditions
Environment - current issues:
limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on environment; burning of soft coal in power plants and lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on environment
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
People Mongolia
Total Population:
2,712,315 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 30.7% (male 423,081; female 408,119)
15-64 years: 65.7% (male 890,482; female 892,140)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 42,292; female 56,201) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 23.5 years
male: 23.2 years
female: 23.9 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
1.42% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
21.39 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
7.18 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
Population: 1 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 57.16 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 53.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 60.75 deaths/1,000 live births
Life Expectancy:
Population: 63.81 years
male: 61.63 years
female: 66.09 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.28 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
less than 100 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
noun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian
Ethnic groups:
Mongol (predominantly Khalkha) 85%, Turkic (of which Kazakh is largest group) 7%, Tungusic 4.6%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 3.4% (1998)
Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism 96%, Muslim (primarily in southwest), Shamanism, and Christian 4% (1998)
Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Population: 99.1%
male: 99.2%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
Government Mongolia
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia
local long form: none
Government type:
Administrative divisions:
21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govi-Sumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
11 July 1921 (from China)
National holiday:
Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)
12 February 1992
Legal system:
blend of Soviet, German, and US systems of law that combines aspects of a parliamentary system with some aspects of a presidential system; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 June 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 26 July 2000)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by State Great Hural in consultation with president
elections: president nominated by parties in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held NA May 2005); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural; election last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: Natsagiyn BAGABANDI reelected president; percent of vote - Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (MPRP) 58.13%, Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ (DP) 36.58%, Luvsandamba DASHNYAM (CWP) 3.54%, other 1.75%; Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected prime minister by a vote in State Great Hural of 68 to 3
Legislative branch:
unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA July 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MPRP 72, other 4
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by General Council of Courts for approval by president)
Political parties and leaders:
Citizens' Will Party or CWP (also called Civil Will Party or Civil Courage Party) [Sanjaasurengyn OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [D. DORLIGJAN]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR]; Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or MNSDP [B. ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [B. JARGALSAIHAN]
note: MPRP is ruling party
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ravdangiyn BOLD
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
consulate(s) general: New York
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
Diplomatic representation from US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela J. Slutz
embassy: Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road, C.P.O. 1021, Ulaanbaatar 13
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [976] (11) 329095
FAX: [976] (11) 320776
Flag description:
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on hoist-side red band in yellow is national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and yin-yang symbol)
Economy Mongolia
Economy - overview:
Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and breeding of livestock. Mongolia also has extensive mineral deposits; copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990-1991 at time of dismantlement of USSR. Mongolia previously driven into deep recession, prolonged by Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party's (MPRP) reluctance to undertake serious economic reform. Democratic Coalition (DC) government embraced free-market economics, eased price controls, liberalized domestic and international trade, and attempted to restructure banking system and energy sector. Major domestic privatization programs were undertaken, as well as fostering of foreign investment through international tender of oil distribution company, a leading cashmere company, and banks. Reform previously held back by ex-Communist MPRP opposition and by political instability brought about through four successive governments under DC. Economic growth picked up in 1997-1999 after stalling in 1996 due to a series of natural disasters and declines in world prices of copper and cashmere. In August and September 1999, economy suffered from a temporary Russian ban on exports of oil and oil products, and Mongolia remains vulnerable in this sector. Mongolia joined World Trade Organization (WTrO) in 1997. international donor community pledged over $300 million per year at Consultative Group Meeting, held in Ulaanbaatar in June 1999. MPRP government, elected in July 2000, is anxious to improve investment climate; it must also deal with a heavy burden of external debt. Falling prices for Mongolia's mainly primary sector exports, widespread opposition to privatization, and adverse effects of weather on agriculture in early 2000 and 2001 restrained real GDP growth in 2000-2001. Despite drought problems in 2002, GDP rose 4.0%, followed by a solid 5.0% increase in 2003. first applications under land privatization law have been marked by a number of disputes over particular sites. Russia claims Mongolia owes it $11 billion from old Soviet period; any settlement could substantially increase Mongolia's foreign debt burden.
buying power parity - $5.06 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.9% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
buying power parity - $1,900 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 32%
industry: 23%
services: 45% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
36% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 24.5% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
33.2 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
1.4 million (2001)
Labor force - by occupation:
primarily herding/agricultural
Unemployment rate:
20% (2000)
revenues: $386 million
expenditures: $427 million, includes capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
construction materials, mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, and gold); oil; food and beverages, processing of animal products
Industrial production growth rate:
4.1% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
2.225 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
2.194 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
25 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
196 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
8,750 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
$501 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Exports - partners:
China 43.8%, US 33.6%, Russia 9.6% (2002)
$659 million c.i.f. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Imports - partners:
Russia 32%, China 19.4%, South Korea 12.1%, US 9.1%, Germany 4.7%, Japan 4.3% (2002)
Debt - external:
$913 million (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$208.7 million (1999 est.)
togrog/tugrik (MNT)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,134 (2002), 1,097.7 (2001), 1,076.67 (2000), 1,021.87 (1999), 840.83 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Mongolia
Telephones - main lines in use:
104,100 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
110,000 (2001)
Telephone system:
general assessment: very low density: about 3.5 telephones for each thousand persons
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 7, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2001)
155,900 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
4 (plus 18 provincial repeaters and many low power repeaters) (1999)
168,800 (1999)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
5 (2001)
Internet users:
40,000 (2002)
Transportation Mongolia
1,815 km
broad gauge: 1,815 km 1.524-m gauge (2002)
total: 49,250 km
paved: 1,724 km
unpaved: 47,526 km (2000)
400 km (1999)
Ports and harbors:
50 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 40
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 12 (2002)
Military Mongolia
Military branches:
Mongolian Armed Forces (includes General Purpose Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense Troops); note - Border Troops are under Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs in peacetime
Military manpower - military age:
18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 796,449 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 516,502 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 32,529 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$23.1 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
2.2% (FY02)
Transnational Issues Mongolia
Disputes - international: